Art and building product

nantucket_sound_2

There are many ways to build a product, there are many opinions floating around. Some say go after the market, while others say create your own market. Some believe that design thinking helps, while others push you to follow the graph.

What is the right way to build a product?

I tried to explore a little bit, instead of looking around and asking people, I asked myself what will make a good product?

Building a product is like painting, you need to be very near to your subject. If you are familiar with “Working in layers” concept, building product is almost exactly the same.


These are some common patterns that I see in people who create literally “work of art” and people who build products.

Yes I should paint it

This is a golden rule for the painting, If you are not feeling it, don’t do it. As simple as that.

You get hundreds of ideas every day, how do you know which one is worth trying? you see hundreds of subjects in a day, which one deserves a painting? Its subjective. Do not force your heart to like something.

There is a reason why people in college and school start world class products then people working in the same domain for years. Think hard and long about the problem, make sure that it is the problem that you want to solve.

Empty canvas

Start with a reference and an empty canvas. The reason why an empty canvas works so well in painting is because you can imagine any picture in it. 

Same with the product, start with no dependencies, no legacy. It gives you the freedom for creating anything. THink everything in skeleton.  

Layer it out

You need to break the idea into layers. The first layer is pale color, a blueprint of sorts, you sketch the edges and boundaries. This layer is very thin and it can be done quickly. You don’t see this layer in the final creation, but without that a perfect painting cannot exists. 

The “Underpainting” for product is when you see what the product, and It is not how the product is going to look like.  Layered is often misunderstood with Modularized. Layering is like a timeline, you cannot afford to go back, if you do you have to start from empty canvas. It is about understanding what the final product needs. and working towards it. Modularising is the way of executing this plan.

Blending and cooling

You start adding more shapes and starts refining so that it is blended in the canvas. Blending is very important aspect of painting, you should give the canvas some time, pause, to blend the layers. Initially it will not look good, but as you do the fine-tuning the softness will come out.

In the product development also there should be a cooling period, do the cleanup step back and look at what you already have.

Details and highlight

The final part of it of painting is details, pay attention to every single pixel. This is the tricky part, you never know what is enough.

Every time you add a layer make sure that it blends into your painting as well as keep looking at the reference so that you do not deviate from your original idea. 

Most of us relate with this. Often when you are on a roll, you just keep your head down and want to do everything at once, but when you come out of it you will realise that it did not look like you had imagined or it is not blending the way you had imagined.

Completeness

Its pretty hard process to take an empty canvas and put the right mixture of color, feel, meaning and beauty to it. 

After these repeated process, that night when you sit next to the painting and look at it. You carefully retouch those highlights. When its dawn you think, of all the ways it would have turned out, it finally turned out to be pretty OK. 

You sign it and move out to have a cup of coffee, searching for the next subject.

Next time when you are building something cool, imagine a perfect painting.

Featured image © Jess Hurley Scott

Last eight dollars ( Part 2 ) : Pre-Pivot

Structured course correction designed to test a new fundamental hypothesis about the product, strategy, and engine of growth. – Wikipedia

 

After the encouraging response from the potential users, it was time to build the product. We did some market research, we found some similar products, and about a week later we thought we knew `how we are going to build it`. The rule engine, scheduling , reports and monetisation.

I love everything about architecting a product. I usually try to think a little ahead, make the problem little larger than it actually is and finally try to fit as many related problems as possible.

One Sunday afternoon after completing our scheduled work, we were having coffee along with Anubhab. Chit-chatting about our dream products, trends and lots of tech.

One of my dream was to build a “Generic Object”, so like other two I pitched in explaining the concept and how it works. Conversation went something like this:

“Some day I will create a generic object builder, using which you can represent everything” – Me

“Oh something like `Single theory` to define the universe” – said Anubhab laughing,

“One day Maddy will create his own clone from code, Wait a minute, are you Maddy or his clone :-)” – Utkarsh joined.

Everyone laughed and for about 5 min nobody talked. Then looking at my face Utkarsh told

“Hold on, you need to tell more about it! It seems interesting…”

“Idea of generic object is that you can represent / create everything from one template. Most of the application that we use today can be represented in a very relational manner, they can be pictured as simple Name and Value pairs.”

“Hmm, but it is still abstract, can you give specific example?”

“Sure, think about this coffee, You add right amount of ingredient and you will get different type of coffee. What If I create a vending machine and code all the combination of ingredient to it. The moment you press a button you get the coffee that you need.”

Whats wrong with me, how to make Coffee? really…???

“Ok let me explain in simpler way, What is a CRM? It has details about the customer, which are nothing but his name, contact, address, product interested in, past transactions. Look at each one, everything is name value pair.”

I continued “So If I create a God class, which will accept what object I want to represent, and pass some data, It will actually create that object and store it in DB etc”

“Is it even possible! How can you store all type of objects in one table?” – Utkarsh.

“Why would anyone want to create all of this in first place” – Anubhab

“I think it is possible” – I was serious

Adding to it “I am not kidding. I think something like this can be used to make 2 different systems to talk to each other.”

“What do you mean by talk to each other?” – Both asked

“If you can link APIs of different products you can transfer data between those, without”

“Ah yea, that will be awesome. Something like IFTTT and Zapier” – Utkarsh

“Yea, but much more powerful, They allow simple rule, here your rules and formula can be complex”

“You know what, lets build it” – Utkarsh

“Don’t tell me you are serious!” – Anubhab

He was serious

 


brace-yourself-pivot-pkvbvh

Acceleration

Changing an idea and moving on, it hurts, because you are leaving something incomplete, something that you thought as a problem.

But somewhere down the line I was scared, all this was working in my head, but anything can go wrong. What if we cannot represent all applications in generic way.

We said It is an automation engine or a Mashup tool, primarily focused on marketing automation. Where users can link different applications like email, mail chimp, google analytics, CRM etc, and automate the process by creating step by step tasks in a workflow.

But somewhere down the line I was scared, all this was working in my head, but anything can go wrong. What if we cannot represent all applications in generic way.

One day While reading Techcrunch, I came across the article which read “JFDI – Asia’s #1 accelerator is now opened their application for their next batch”

“We can get in..” I don’t know how it occurred to me, I was just damn confident at that moment, that we will get in.

Immediately I shared the link with Utkarsh, and told him we should apply.

“What? an accelerator ? But why?”

“We need to get bigger audience, the problem that we are addressing is not prominent in India”

“That is true, But we don’t have anything to show. and more over there are thousands of application these people would receive, why would they select us among all?”

“Because We are awesome :-)” I said smiling

 

 

“Dude, Do you think we can fly to Singapore and stay there for 4 months? How much money have you got?”

“I guess ~$3” I said giggling.

“Wow, I am rich, I’ve got $5”

So with $8 combined in our accounts we applied to JFDI.asia accelerator and as a bonus to Y-Combinator also, you know in case if we get lucky :-)

Last eight dollars

statement

TTL;DR (Too too long)

This is going to be a long blog, about the journey of our startup, from an Idea to Product and everything and everyone in between. I will try to make it as conversational as possible

PS: I am a programmer, story will be filled with nerdy stories.

PPS: Did you see the the Statement above?


 Scratching an Itch

We were having frappe at Café Coffee Day as usual. We had decided to distance ourselves from the day-to-day operations of our previous startup GuitarStreet, not that it was doing bad, during this time it was doing pretty good, but we really loved to build products. We always thought of creating a product, e-commerce was holding us back for almost 2 years. Now we wanted to move on. ( Our third co-founder knew in-and-out of Music business, so he was happy to run it by himself.)

“Did you checkout the article that I sent” I asked Utkarsh

“Which article? Where ? hangout, E-mail or Skype?”

“E-mail”

“I’ll check it out in some time.”

I noticed that he is in the middle of something.

“Maddy, I was thinking what if we create a CRM” he started after few minutes.

WAT !! CRM ? there are 100s of them already, why you want to build one more?”

“Hear me out, Yes there are hundreds of them, but none of them are addressing a specific problem that we had faced in GS”

“What problem?”

“None of them has built in Automation. See in a startup….”

My mind could not process anything beyond automation. It was racing, all my research and experiments that I had done came in front of my eyes. Combination of the things that we did in GS and my side experiments etc…

itch

“Maddy… Maddy…”

“Yes, I’m here, Sorry I was in MadSpace. What were you saying.”

“In GS, we did our own CRM and Order management system, Why?” ( yes we did :-) )

“Because none of the CRM gave us flexibility to handle things in our own way.”

“Exactly, how long did it take you to create that auto emailing and reminders for our CRM?”

“About 2 weeks”

“Now Imagine….”

This is how he usually starts, taking you to the future, showing how it works in future. But this time I knew where he was going. I could almost see the query and code that will go in creating rule.

Ok enough, stop stop… come back, listen to what he is saying

“…and we give them a list of `soft coded` rules, for automated reminders, followups, transactional email, marketing campaigns.”

“Ah, I get it.. that would be awesome!”

“They can plan their entire months’ marketing plan in rule and set it up and forget it, and of course, you don’t have to be a technical person to set up these rules”

“Exactly! but still who will use it?”

“People like us, who are running e-commerce business, or lets say brick and mortar shops”

“Hmm, Ok”

At this point asking who will use it was just a spontaneous question, I was actually thinking about what all we can do with those rules. Reports, suggestions, analytics etc.

“Lets do one thing, lets talk to few people If this is of any use to them”

“Sure, that sounds like a good idea”

We spent almost 3-4 full days thinking about the pitch that we are going to tell our potential users, who, before we walked-in,  had no idea what automation was, had no freaking clue that it was a problem.

After we had a convincing pitch we started searching name for the product as well as domain. Its hard to get a domain which is good and available.

image

 

After all the thinking and brainstorming We called it `AutoCus` – Automate Customer interaction ( don’t ask me what were we thinking )

So in next 2-3 weeks we shortlisted 20 people that we have to talk to, including some of our close friends. We met them face to face. That includes some Brick and motor stores. We went to them and told them how automating the communication can help their sales.

Our pitch was something like this “If we could send SMS to your customers in regular basis regarding offers, best wishes for festivals (In India we have one or the other festival every week ). For this you do not need to sit in front of computer for hours. All you need to do is choose the schedule plan from hundreds of pre created list, and `Autocus` will send it time to time. If you like we will setup for you”. They were impressed by it, about 8-10 of them asked us to give the product so that they can use it. That is what we wanted.

We knew that we are actually solving a real problem, specific to India.

 

To be Continued…

Egoless product building

This post was originally published in Augment


 

It takes enormous effort to build a product. When I say product, it is not only the software.

It goes through long process of ideating, researching, customer development, proof of concept(MDP), validating, structuring (MVP), cleanup, and then you get the product.

People spend months, sometimes years doing research, on what to build, how to build, who will use it, and much more. For the most part of the product building process, very few people ( 2 – 3 people in most cases ) put their thoughts into the idea, that will go into the DNA of the product. When there are fewer minds, the views are highly biased towards ones’ own prospective.

From your mentors to investors, friends to neighbours, basically everyone you talk to will have suggestions, ideas, and opinions. It varies from UX to features, market to hiring, PR to pricing.

The 2-3 people, are risking their valuable time in building the product and turning their idea to reality. But more often than not, people will have strong biases and opinions. That is why the people who are part of this process are often opinionated. Otherwise idea will change with every suggestion, and the product will never see the light.

What happens when there are 2 opinions for one particular thing? Which one to consider? Who will decide which one is better? without realising it, debates will tun into a chaos. Questioning every detail, every move, directions and what not! No one wants to spoil the product, it is just that each individual is seeking a different direction for the product.

You are probably aware of the term Egoless Programming in computer programming, in which personal factors are minimized, so that quality may be improved.
This ‘Egoless philosophy’ is something that can be extended in product building also.

Tips for egoless product building

1. Listen and Learn to see other perspectives:

Listen what others are saying, and then try to see what is the reason behind it. Let them complete their point, do not cut them off in the middle.

Remember the point is not to defeat them, it is to understand them.

2. Do not answer in questions:

That moment when we start the answer by re-framing his/her own question to fit to his prospective.

Classic example,

Q: “Why do you think user will like 3 column layout? better than 2 column?”

A: “Why do you think 2 column is better?”

Rhetorical questions are better left outside the conversation.

3. Do not think on the fly:

Organize your thoughts, before jumping to beat them in their argument. It is absolutely fine to say, “Hmm, I have not thought it through! let me get back to you on that point.”  Later go back to them and try to answer that genuinely.

This will drive home the positive gesture of yours, that you are trying to validate the best solution for that problem, rather than just trying to prove them wrong.

4. Things go wrong, say “I screwed up”:

Most of the times when our view hits a roadblock we panic and struggle to come up with a reason why it failed, who failed it etc… It is better to say “Look, I was wrong!”. Things will fail and people who work together will find a better solution. So be honest in admitting it.

5. Things go wrong, say “its OK”:

The above logic will also apply when others fail. Do not blame people that they failed in something.

Instead of saying “See, I told you so” get back to the white board and think how to fix it. That will give them the opportunity to think harder next time, without feeling guilty.

6. Fight for your view, but don’t be an ass:

In debates people get convinced, it is ok to change your views. Accept the fact, It is not really a defeat. Remember you have learned something new.

7. Come prepared with data:

Data speaks for itself. If you think the direction of thinking is wrong then give examples, back it up with data. Make them believe you but do not throw random numbers.

Random numbers pisses people off!

“I know like 20 apps which do exactly the same thing!”

“There are apps like X, Y and Z that I know of, which do similar stuff”.

See the difference?!

8. Give preference to others in case of deadlock:

In case of deadlock, where nobody is able to convince others. Give preference to others and try their idea. “Ok, that may not work, but lets do a small experiment and see where it goes.”

 

These tips have helped us define and engineer Augment. I hope these help you and your team in building a world class product. Let us know in the comments what has helped you in defining your product.

Think like product

WAT?

While you think of a product / idea , it is usual to think like people who will be using it. But not to me, I do not think like customer, not like developer, not like investors or market.

“Think like Product”

 

How can you think like a product?

Imagination… think about how you will be interacting your users for the first time.

It is like you ( product/ idea ) are going on a `date` with your `user` ( henceforth `her`, sorry girls), now ask yourself questions like…

 

`Am I ready` to go with her ?

You will never be 100% ready for a date, but  you need to be ready just enough to ask her for another date. First date should give her some hope to take one more chance. The trick here is not the first date, it is actually the second date, where she will be far more serious than the first date, hence she would listen more carefully and seriously.

What is that she is looking for?

Well this is a tricky question isn’t it, whole world is looking for this answer. But for now its obvious that she is looking for someone she can trust, can share with and to be comfortable with. You need to tell her about your positive things, strengths ( don’t worry she will figure out the weaknesses, but that is when she feel proud of her insights),  It is important to let her figure out the negative things. Do not highlight them, but at the same time do not lie, something you can’t do. Remember she is looking for someone she can trust.

 

Is she undergoing  `data overflow`?

Talking about yourself is fine, but it is important to understand  what she wants to know about you at this stage.  Probably it will not be a good idea to talk about your friends and your daily routine ( competition ). Not telling anything about you also will keep her in confused state, which is incorrect. So cut it short, tell it in one sentence, say 10 important things that happened in your life. or your passion, what you want to do, what makes you happy. Remember to let her talk first, when conversation starts then you should follow these one by one.

 

Is she into me?

This is where lot of people misjudge.  Just because she is smiling doesn’t mean that she is liking you. She might think of you as a funny person ( unless thats what you want ).  Key thing here is that there should be an emotional bond where there is a little bit of tolerance over not-so-perfect-person. When she realize you are what you are, not-so-perfect-person, then automatically she would give more time to you. Do not rush.

 

Should I ask her number?

Ah, this is where classic dilemma comes in. Before asking this you must know that the total experience of this date so far is good. Don’t ask the number until you think that she would not mind sharing her information.  Asking number if she is pissed of at somebody (more likely you!) is probably not a good idea. If something went wrong, then apologise. In between conversation telling her `where to find you` would be better, rather than asking  her number. Remember, keep your card ready, if she is impressed with you she might ask your number as well.

If everything goes well, you will be ready for the next big date :-)

 

What difference will it make?

The point here is, if you start asking yourself questions regarding how to do things, naturally you will come up with better use cases. Put yourself in the use case rather than your software / idea. There is no better system than you.

Cheers

Life in a stream

Over the past few years we have seen lot of hardwares and softwares sharing their data through APIs for whatever reasons. At present by using the data from all of our application it is possible to create a `Stream` of updates / life events in one place.

Think about this, few years from now, there will be enough Hardware and Softwares monitoring us Live and those data can be stored  in one place using APIs. The technology to understand human behaviors will also evolve (such as Natural Language Processing, Machine Learning).

The data collected from all of these `Sources` will then pass through a tunnel of RULEs which creates personalised text and post it to your stream.

User can create rules that will analyze the text to be posted and dynamically create list of people who can see these updates. Rules are executed based on a Machine learning algorithm, I call it `Layer`. After every pass it calculates the probable list of `Receivers` with the Algorithmically composed text `Message`. The set of `Receivers` in each layer may get different Messages.  The magic of this Stream will be, that it is not open system. Only people who are in particular layer  can see the selected updates. and the feeling of the text will differ based on who is viewing.

A simple diagram below shows how the layers work.

algo

 

As the arrows shows the messages are generated based on the data passed to the previous layer. The final output, if at all its there, will be public. Using the previous output is considering the actual Human Social circles how people usually share things.

These layers can be transformed into different types such as  Zones , Lists (or any other type of segregations ). Based on the type of layers the algorithm changes, and there could be a Hybrid  algorithm as well for all the few cases. In between layers also it should be possible to create sub layers and execute the algorithm.

This kind of an application can be used in thousand ways including Medical , Educational domains and for personal growth predictions, recommendations and different pattern can be determined.

But there is a risk of privacy and security which has to be addressed.

 

Writing Briefly – 30 tips ( in Kannada )

Original Article – http://paulgraham.com/writing44.html

ಉತ್ತಮ ಲೇಖನಕ್ಕೆ 30 ಸಲಹೆಗಳು

ಉತ್ತಮ ಬರವಣಿಗೆಯ ಮಹತ್ವ ನಾವು ತಿಳಿದುಕೊಂಡಿರುವುದಕ್ಕಿಂತ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನದ್ದು. ಬರವಣಿಗೆ ಕೇವಲ ವಿಚಾರ ಸಂವಹನಕ್ಕೆ ಸೀಮಿತವಾಗದೇ; ಹೊಸ ವಿಚಾರಧಾರೆಗೆ ಕಾರಣವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ನೀವು ಉತ್ತಮ ಬರಹಗಾರರಲ್ಲ ಹಾಗೂ ಅದನ್ನು ಇಷ್ಟಪಡುವುದಿಲ್ಲ ಎಂದರೆ, ಬರವಣಿಗೆಯಿಂದ ಜನಿಸುವ ಹಲವು ವಿಚಾರಧಾರೆಗಳಿಂದ ವಂಚಿತರಾಗಿದ್ದೀರಿ ಎಂದರ್ಥ.

ಉತ್ತಮವಾಗಿ ಬರೆಯುವುದು ಹೇಗೆ ಎನ್ನುವುದಕ್ಕೆ ಒಂದು ಚಿಕ್ಕ ನಿರೂಪಣೆ ಇಲ್ಲಿದೆ.

1. ಬರವಣಿಗೆಯ ಮೊದಲ ಆವೃತ್ತಿಯನ್ನು, ಅದು ಚೆನ್ನಾಗಿಲ್ಲದಿದ್ದರೂ ಸಾದ್ಯವಾದಷ್ಟು ಬೇಗ ಬರೆಯಿರಿ.

2. ಅದನ್ನು ಪುನಃ ಪುನಃ ತಿದ್ದಿ; ಅಗತ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲದ ಅಂಶಗಳನ್ನು ತೆಗೆದುಹಾಕಿ.

3. ನಿಮ್ಮ ಮೊದಲ ಆವೃತ್ತಿ ಸಂಭಾಷಣೆಯಂತಿರಲಿ.

4. ಕೆಟ್ಟ ಬರವಣಿಗೆಯ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ತೀಕ್ಷ್ಣ ಪ್ರತಿಕ್ರಿಯೆಯನ್ನು ಬೆಳೆಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಿ; ನಿಮ್ಮ ಬರವಣಿಗೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಅದನ್ನು ಗುರುತಿಸಿ.

5. ನಿಮ್ಮ ಮೆಚ್ಚಿನ ಬರಹಗಾರರನ್ನು ಅನುಕರಿಸಿ.

6. ಲೇಖನವನ್ನು ಆರಂಭಿಸುವುದು ಕಷ್ಟವಾದರೆ, ನಿಮ್ಮ ಸ್ನೇಹಿತರಲ್ಲಿ ಲೇಖನದ ಸಾರಾಂಶವನ್ನು ಹೇಳಿಕೊಳ್ಳಿ; ನೀವು ಹೇಳಿದ್ದನ್ನು ಯಥಾವತ್ ಬರೆದುಕೊಳ್ಳಿ.

7. ನಿಮ್ಮ ವಿಚಾರದ 80% ನೀವು ಬರೆಯಲು ಪ್ರಾರಂಭಿಸಿದ ನಂತರ ಜೀವತಳೆಯುತ್ತವೆ; ಹಾಗೂ 50% ಭಾಗವು ತಪ್ಪಾಗಿರುತ್ತವೆ ಎಂದೇ ಭಾವಿಸಿ.

8. ನಿಮ್ಮ ಬರವಣಿಗೆಯನ್ನು ವಿಶ್ವಾಸದಿಂದ ತಿದ್ದಿಕೊಳ್ಳಿ.

9. ನಿಮ್ಮ ಆಪ್ತ ಸ್ನೇಹಿತರಿಗೆ ಓದಲು ಕೊಡಿ, ಲೇಖನದಲ್ಲಿ ಯಾವ ಭಾಗವು ಗೊಂದಲಮಯವಾಗಿದೆ ಅಥವಾ ಅತಿಯಾಗಿ ವಿವರಿಸಿದ್ದೀರ ಎಂದು ತಿಳಿಯಿರಿ.

10. ಎಲ್ಲಾ ವಿಚಾರಗಳನ್ನು ಅತಿಯಾಗಿ ವಿವರಿಸಲು ಹೋಗದಿರಿ.

11. ಬರೆಯುವ ಮೊದಲು ಕೆಲವು ದಿನ ಈ ವಿಚಾರದ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಚಿಂತಿಸಿ.

12. ನಿಮ್ಮ ಜೊತೆ ಒಂದು ಸಣ್ಣ ಕಾಗದ ಹಾಗೂ ಲೇಖನಿಯನ್ನು ಯಾವಾಗಲೂ ಇಟ್ಟುಕೊಂಡಿರಿ; ನೀವು ಏನನ್ನೇ ಯೋಚಿಸಿದರೂ ಬರೆದುಕೊಳ್ಳಿ.

13. ನಿಮ್ಮ ಬರವಣಿಗೆ ಅವಧಿಗೆ ಬದ್ದವಾಗಿದ್ದರೆ, ಮುಖ್ಯವಾದ ವಿಚಾರವನ್ನು ಮೊದಲು ಬರೆಯಿರಿ.

14. ನಿಮಗಿಷ್ಟವಾದ ವಿಷಯಗಳ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಬರೆಯಿರಿ.

15. ಪ್ರಭಾವಶಾಲಿಯಾಗಿ ನಿಮ್ಮನ್ನು ಪ್ರತಿಬಿಂಬಿಸಲು ಪ್ರಯತ್ನಿಸದಿರಿ.

16. ಲೇಖನದ ಶೀರ್ಷಿಕೆ ಬದಲಿಸಲು ಹಿಂಜರಿಯಬೇಡಿ.

17. ಅಗತ್ಯವಿದ್ದಲ್ಲಿ ಅಡಿಟಿಪ್ಪಣಿ ನೀಡಿ.

18. ಪುನರುಕ್ತಿಗಳನ್ನು ಉಪಯೋಗಿಸಿ ವಾಕ್ಯವನ್ನು ಜೋಡಿಸಿ.

19. ಜೋರಾಗಿ ನಿಮ್ಮ ಲೇಖನವನ್ನು ಓದಿ ಇದರಿಂದ

  •  ಯಾವ ಭಾಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಕ್ಲಿಷ್ಟ  ಶಬ್ದ ಪ್ರಯೋಗವಿದೆ
  •  ಯಾವ  ಭಾಗದಲ್ಲಿ ನೀರಸವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ ( ಓದಲು ಇಷ್ಟಪಡದ ಭಾಗಗಳು ) ಎಂಬುದನ್ನು ಗುರಿತಿಸಿ.

20. ನಿಮ್ಮ ಲೇಖನದಿಂದ  ಓದುಗರಿಗೆ ಹೊಸ ಹಾಗೂ ಉಪಯುಕ್ತ ಮಾಹಿತಿ ಸಿಗುವಂತಿರಲಿ.

21. ಬರೆಯಲು ನಿಗದಿತ ಸಮಯ ಕೊಡಿ; ಪುನಃ ಪ್ರಾರಂಭಿಸುವ ಮೊದಲು ಒಮ್ಮೆ ಓದಿ;  ನಿಗದಿತ ಸಮಯಕ್ಕೆ ಮುಗಿಸುವ ಮುನ್ನ ಪುನಃ ಪ್ರಾರಂಭಿಸಲು ಅನುಕೂಲವಾಗುವಂತೆ ನಿಲ್ಲಿಸಿ.

22. ಅಗತ್ಯವಿದ್ದಲ್ಲಿ ಕೊನೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಭವಿಷ್ಯದ ಪ್ರಬಂಧಗಳ ವಿಷಯಗಳ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಟಿಪ್ಪಣಿಗಳನ್ನು ಸಂಗ್ರಹಿಸಿ.

23. ಪಾಪ್ ಸಂಗೀತವು ವಾಹನದ ರೇಡಿಯೋದಲ್ಲಿ ಕೇಳಲು ಸಮಂಜಸವಾದಂತೆ, ನಿಮ್ಮ ಲೇಖನವು ನಿಮ್ಮಸ್ಟು  ಆಳವಾಗಿ  ಓದಲಾಗದ ಓದುಗರಿಗಾಗಿ ಎಂದು ತಿಳಿಯಿರಿ.

24. ತಪ್ಪು ಹೇಳಿದ್ದೀರ ಎಂದೆನಿಸಿದರೆ ತತ್-ಕ್ಷಣ ಅದನ್ನು ತಿದ್ದಿಕೊಳ್ಳಿ.

25. ಯಾವ ವಾಕ್ಯ ಅಸಮಂಜಸವಾಗಿದೆ ಎಂದು ನಿಮ್ಮ ಸ್ನೇಹಿತರಲ್ಲಿ ಕೇಳಿ; ಕಠಿಣ ಪದಗಳನ್ನು ಉಪಯೋಗಿಸಿದ್ದರೆ, ಅದನ್ನು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾದಷ್ಟು ಮೃದುವಾದ ಮಾತಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಹೇಳಲು ಯತ್ನಿಸಿ.

26. ಲೇಖನವನ್ನು ಅಂತರ್ಜಾಲದಲ್ಲಿ ಪ್ರಕಟಿಸಿ, ಏಕೆಂದರೆ ಅದು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ಓದುಗರಿಗೆ ದೊರಕುತ್ತದೆ,   ನಿಮ್ಮ ಓದುಗರಿಂದ  ನೀವು ಹೆಚ್ಚು ವಿಚಾರಗಳನ್ನು ಕಲಿಯುತ್ತೀರಿ.

27. ಲೇಖನದ ಒಂದು ಮುದ್ರಿತ ಪ್ರತಿಯನ್ನು ತೆಗೆದು ಓದಿ.

28. ಸರಳವಾದ ಪದಗಳನ್ನು ಉಪಯೋಗಿಸಿ.

29. ಅಪ್ರಸ್ತುತ ಮತ್ತು ಆಶ್ಚರ್ಯದ ನಡುವೆ ಬಹಳ ಅ೦ತರವಿದೆ ಮರೆಯಬೇಡಿ!

30. ಲೇಖನದ ಅಂತ್ಯವನ್ನು ಗುರುತಿಸಿ;  ಸಂಪೂರ್ಣಗೊಳಿಸಿ.

 

ಇದು ನನ್ನ ಮೊದಲ ಕನ್ನಡ ತರ್ಜಿಮೆ, ತಪ್ಪಿದ್ದಲ್ಲಿ ಸೂಚಿಸಿ;

ಟಿಪ್ಪಣಿ

ಅಡಿಟಿಪ್ಪಣಿ : footnote
ಪುನರುಕ್ತಿ : anaphora